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Python Interview Questions

February 7, 2024

Dive into the world of Python with our curated interview questions for both beginners and seasoned professionals. From basics to advanced, Aimore Technologies, your go-to software training institute in Chennai, ensures a personalized learning journey. Elevate your skills in Python programming with us and step into a rewarding future!

Beginners
Experienced
1. What is Python?
Python stands out as a programming language celebrated for its readability and simplicity, operating at a high level and serving various purposes. It accommodates diverse programming paradigms such as procedural, object-oriented, and functional programming.
2. What is a dynamically typed language?

In a dynamically typed language, variable types are not explicitly declared and can change during runtime. Python is an example of a dynamically typed language, allowing flexibility in variable assignments without specifying data types explicitly.

3. What is an Interpreted language?
An interpreted language is executed line by line, and the source code is directly executed by an interpreter without the need for a separate compilation step. Python is an interpreted language, and its interpreter reads and executes the code one line at a time.
4. Explain the significance of PEP 8 and its role in Python programming.
The Python Enhancement Proposal 8, commonly known as PEP 8, serves as the authoritative style guide for Python code. It provides conventions and guidelines on how to format code for better readability and consistency. Adhering to PEP 8 helps maintain a unified coding style across projects, making it easier for developers to collaborate and understand each other's code.
5. What is Scope in Python?
Scope refers to the region in a program where a particular identifier (variable or function) is accessible. Python has local, enclosing (non-local), and global scopes. Variables declared inside a function have a local scope, while those declared outside any function have a global scope.
6. What are lists and tuples? What distinguishes the two?

Both lists and tuples are sequences in Python, but lists are mutable, meaning their elements can be modified after creation. Tuples, on the other hand, are immutable, and their elements cannot be changed once defined. Tuples are typically used for fixed collections of items, while lists are more flexible.

7. What are the common built-in data types in Python?
Common built-in data types in Python include integers, floats, strings, lists, tuples, sets, dictionaries, and booleans. These data types form the basic building blocks for constructing more complex data structures and algorithms.
8. What is pass in Python?
pass is a null statement in Python that serves as a placeholder. It is used when syntactically a statement is required but no action is desired or necessary. It allows the code to pass through without any effect.
9. What are modules and packages in Python?
Within the realm of Python, modules take the form of files housing code that delineates functions, classes, and variables. Packages are collections of modules organized in a directory hierarchy. They provide a way to organize and structure code, promoting code reusability and maintainability.
10. Define global, protected, and private attributes in Python.
  1. Global attributes: Variables declared outside any function or class, accessible throughout the entire program.
  2. Protected attributes: Variables or methods with a single leading underscore, indicating that they are intended for internal use and should not be accessed directly from outside the class or module.
  3. Private attributes: Variables or methods with a double leading underscore, providing a stronger indication of internal use and making it more difficult to access from outside the class.
11. In Python, what purpose does the keyword "self" serve?
self  is a convention used in Python to represent the instance of the class. It is the first parameter of any method in a class and refers to the instance on which the method is called. It allows access to the instance's attributes and methods within the class.
12. What is init?

__init__ is a special method in Python classes that is called when an object is created. It is commonly used for initializing the attributes of the object. The double underscores before and after "init" make it a dunder method, indicating its special status in the Python language.

13. What is break, continue and pass in Python?
  1. break: Used to exit a loop prematurely.
  2. continue: Skips the rest of the loop's code and moves to the next iteration.
  3. pass: A null operation, serving as a placeholder to ensure syntactic correctness without any actual code execution.
14. What are unit tests in Python?

Unit tests are a type of testing where individual units or components of a software application are tested in isolation. In Python, the unit test module provides a framework for creating and running unit tests. Unit tests help ensure that each part of the program functions as intended.

15. What is docstring in Python?

A docstring is a string literal placed at the beginning of a module, function, class, or method definition in Python. It serves as documentation, providing information about the purpose and usage of the code. Docstrings can be accessed using the __doc__ attribute.

16. What is slicing in Python?

Slicing is a technique in Python used to extract a portion of a sequence, such as a list or string. It involves specifying a start index, a stop index, and an optional step value. Slicing allows for creating sublists or substrings from the original sequence.

17. Describe the process of making a Python Script executable on Unix.

To make a Python script executable on Unix, follow these steps:

  1. Add a shebang line at the top of the script, specifying the path to the Python interpreter. For example: #!/usr/bin/env python3.
  2. Set the script file's execution permissions using the chmod command: chmod +x script.py.
  3. Execute the script using ./script.py without explicitly invoking the Python interpreter.
18. How do Python Arrays differ from lists?

Python arrays and lists both represent ordered sequences of elements, but they differ in their functionality. Arrays are part of the ‘array’ module and are more efficient for numerical operations. Lists, part of the core language, are more versatile and can contain elements of different data types. While lists support various operations, arrays are specialized for numerical computations and provide better performance for large datasets.

1. How is memory managed in Python?

Python's memory manager is responsible for managing memory in Python. It uses a private heap space to store objects and data structures. The memory manager is responsible for allocating and deallocating memory, and it includes mechanisms such as automatic garbage collection to reclaim memory occupied by objects that are no longer in use.

2. What are Python namespaces? Why are they used?
Namespaces in Python are containers that hold a mapping of names to objects. They provide a way to organize and manage names in a program. Namespaces help avoid naming conflicts and allow for better organization of code. In Python, namespaces can be seen as dictionaries where the names are the keys and the objects (variables, functions, etc.) are the values.
3. What is Scope Resolution in Python?
Scope resolution refers to the process of determining the location from which a variable is accessed in a program. Python follows the LEGB (Local, Enclosing, Global, Built-in) rule for scope resolution. This rule defines the order in which Python searches for a variable: first in the local scope, then in enclosing (non-local) scopes, followed by the global scope, and finally in the built-in scope.
4. What are decorators in Python?
Decorators are a powerful feature in Python that allows the modification or extension of functions or methods without changing their actual code. They are denoted by the "@" symbol and are applied using the decorator syntax. Decorators are commonly used for tasks like logging, timing, access control, or modifying the behaviour of functions.
5. What are Dict and List comprehensions?

Dict comprehensions and List comprehensions are concise ways to create dictionaries and lists, respectively. They provide a compact syntax for creating these data structures by specifying the elements or key-value pairs in a single line, using a concise and expressive syntax.

6. What is lambda in Python? Why is it used?

In Python, a lambda function is an unnamed function created using the 'lambda' keyword. It is used for creating small, one-time-use functions without explicitly naming them. Lambdas are often employed for short-term operations in functions like ‘map()’, ‘filter()’, and ‘sorted()’.

7. How do you copy an object in Python?

If you want to duplicate an object in Python, the ‘copy’ module comes in handy. The ‘copy()’ function creates a shallow copy, while the ‘deepcopy()’ function creates a deep copy, which includes copies of nested objects. Additionally, you can use slicing or the ‘copy’ method for specific data types like lists.

8. How does Python's xrange differ from the range?

In Python 2, ‘xrange’ is a function that generates values on-the-fly, representing an iterable sequence. It is memory-efficient as it doesn't generate all values at once. In Python 3, ‘range’ itself is implemented like ‘xrange’ in Python 2, making the distinction between them obsolete.

9. What is pickling and unpickling?

Pickling is the process of converting a Python object into a byte stream, while unpickling is the reverse process of reconstructing the original object from the byte stream. This is commonly used for object serialization and deserialization.

10. What are generators in Python?

In Python, iterators can be generated using generators. They allow you to iterate over a potentially large sequence of data efficiently, generating values one at a time instead of creating the entire sequence in memory. Generators use the yield keyword to produce values during iteration.

11. What is PYTHONPATH in Python?

PYTHONPATH is an environment variable in Python that specifies additional directories where the interpreter should look for modules and packages. It is a list of directories separated by colons (or semicolons on Windows) that Python uses to search for imported modules.

12. What is the use of help() and dir() functions?

The ‘help()’ function provides interactive help for Python objects by displaying their docstrings and other related information. The ‘dir()’ function, on the other hand, returns a list of names in the current local scope or the attributes of an object, showing what is defined or available.

13. What sets .py files apart from .pyc files?

.py files are Python source code files, while .pyc files are compiled bytecode files. When a .py file is run, Python generates a .pyc file to store the compiled bytecode, which can be executed faster in subsequent runs.

14. How is Python interpreted?
Python is interpreted by the CPython interpreter, which translates Python code into intermediate bytecode. The Python Virtual Machine (PVM) executes the bytecode generated. Other implementations like Jython and IronPython use different approaches, such as interpreting Python code on the Java or .NET platforms.
15. In Python, what determines whether arguments are passed by value or by reference?

In Python, arguments are passed by object reference. When a function is called, references to objects are passed to the function. However, whether the actual object is mutable or immutable determines whether changes made inside the function persist outside of it.

16. What are iterators in Python?

Iterators in Python are objects that implement the ‘__iter__()’and ‘__next__()’ methods, allowing them to be iterated over. Iterators maintain state and produce the next value in a sequence when the ‘__next__()’ method is called.

17. Provide a guide on deleting a file in Python.

To delete a file in Python, you can use the ‘os.remove()’ function from the ‘os’ module. This function takes the file path as an argument and deletes the specified file.

python

import os

file_path = 'path/to/your/file.txt'

try:
os.remove(file_path)
print(f"File {file_path} deleted successfully.")
except FileNotFoundError:
print(f"File {file_path} not found.")
except Exception as e:
print(f"An error occurred: {e}")

18. Explain split() and join() functions in Python?
The 'split()' function is employed to divide a string into a collection of substrings, utilizing a designated delimiter. Conversely, the join() function is a string method that concatenates a list of strings into a single string, using the specified separator.
19. What does *args and kwargs mean?
In Python function definitions, ‘*args’ is used to pass a variable number of positional arguments, and ‘**kwargs’ is used to pass a variable number of keyword arguments. The ‘*args’ collects positional arguments into a tuple, while ‘**kwargs’ collects keyword arguments into a dictionary.
20. Explain the purpose and usage of negative indexes in Python.

Negative indexes in Python are used to access elements from the end of a sequence, such as a string or a list. Negative indexing starts from the last element with index -1, allowing for convenient access to elements in reverse order.

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