1. What do you understand about cloud computing?
Cloud computing is a technology that allows users to access and use computing resources (such as servers, storage, databases, networking, software, and analytics) over the internet, often referred to as "The cloud." This framework eradicates the necessity for entities or individuals to possess and upkeep tangible hardware, empowering them to expand resources as needed and pay solely for their usage.
2. Can you tell me something about Azure Cloud Service?
Azure Cloud Service is a platform-as-a-service (PaaS) offering from Microsoft Azure that allows developers to build, deploy, and manage scalable and highly available applications without dealing with the underlying infrastructure. It supports both web roles for hosting websites and worker roles for background processing tasks. Azure Cloud Service provides automatic OS and runtime patching, load balancing, and fault tolerance, making it easier for developers to focus on application development rather than infrastructure management.
3. Enumerate the different models offered for deploying in the cloud.
Various deployment models in cloud computing include:
- Public Cloud: Resources are possessed and managed by an external cloud service provider, accessible to the general public.
- Private Cloud: Resources are used exclusively by a single organization, providing more control and customization.
- Hybrid Cloud: Integrates both public and private cloud models, facilitating the sharing of data and applications between them.
4. Define role instances in Azure.
Role instances in Azure refer to the individual virtual machines (VMs) or instances that run applications deployed in Azure Cloud Services. Each role instance is a separate VM, and multiple instances of a role provide scalability, load balancing, and high availability for the hosted application.
5. As for Azure, how many roles for cloud services does it offer?
Azure provides two main roles for cloud services: web roles for hosting web applications and worker roles for background processing tasks.
6. Why is Azure Diagnostics API needed?
The Azure Diagnostics API is needed to collect and analyze diagnostic data from applications and services running in Azure. It helps in monitoring and troubleshooting by providing insights into performance, events, and errors, allowing developers and administrators to identify and address issues proactively.
7. Define Azure Service Level Agreement (SLA)?
An Azure Service Level Agreement (SLA) is a commitment made by Microsoft Azure to provide a certain level of service regarding uptime, performance, and support for its cloud services. SLAs define the guaranteed availability and reliability of Azure services and specify the compensation or penalties if those commitments are not met.
8. What is Azure Resource Manager?
Azure Resource Manager (ARM) is the deployment and management service in Microsoft Azure that allows users to provision and manage resources in a declarative template-based manner. It enables the creation, update, and deletion of resources in a consistent and repeatable manner, making it easier to manage complex applications and infrastructures.
9. What is NSG?
NSG stands for Network Security Group, which is a fundamental element of Azure's network security. NSGs allow users to control inbound and outbound traffic to Azure resources by defining security rules. These rules can be based on source or destination IP address, port, and protocol, providing a granular level of control over network traffic.
10. VM creation is possible using Azure Resource Manager in a Virtual Network which was created using classic deployment. True or False?
True. Azure Resource Manager allows the creation of virtual machines in a Virtual Network, irrespective of whether the Virtual Network was created using the classic deployment model. ARM provides a unified way to manage and deploy resources, bridging the gap between classic and resource manager deployment models.
1. What is Azure Redis Cache?
Azure Redis Cache is a fully managed, high-performance, and secure in-memory data store service provided by Microsoft Azure. It is based on the open-source Redis (Remote Dictionary Server) and is used to build highly responsive and scalable applications by caching frequently accessed data in-memory. Azure Redis Cache supports features such as data partitioning, replication, and persistence, making it suitable for scenarios like session caching, real-time analytics, and gaming leaderboards.
2. Define Azure virtual machine scale sets
Azure virtual machine scale sets are a feature of Azure that enables the automatic scaling of a group of identical virtual machines. It simplifies the deployment and management of a set of VMs by allowing users to define the desired number of VM instances and automatically adjusting the capacity based on demand or predefined rules. This feature ensures high availability and load distribution for applications, making it easier to scale resources in and out based on traffic patterns.
3. Can you explain the concept of an "Availability Set"?
An Availability Set in Azure is a logical grouping of virtual machines within the same data centre. The purpose of an Availability Set is to ensure high availability and reliability for applications by distributing VM instances across multiple physical servers, racks, and update domains. In the event of planned maintenance or unforeseen hardware failures, VMs within an Availability Set are placed in separate update domains to minimize the risk of downtime, ensuring that at least one update domain remains available.
4. What deployment environment choices does Azure offer?
Azure provides various deployment environment choices, including:
- Azure Public Cloud: The standard cloud environment provided by Microsoft.
- Azure Government Cloud: A version of Azure dedicated to meeting the unique requirements of U.S. federal, state, local, and tribal governments.
- Azure China Cloud: An independent cloud environment operated by a licensed partner in China, complying with Chinese regulations.
- Azure Stack: Enables organizations to run Azure services in their own data centers, providing a hybrid cloud solution.
5. In the event of drive failure, what actions should be taken?
In the event of drive failure, the recommended actions include:
- Identify the Failed Drive: Determine which drive has failed using monitoring tools or diagnostic information.
- Replace the Failed Drive: Physically replace the failed drive with a new one.
- Rebuild or Restore Data: Depending on the RAID configuration, initiate a rebuild process or restore data from backups.
- Monitor for Health: After the replacement, monitor the system for any further issues and ensure the array is in a healthy state.
6. Can applications be developed in Azure to manage connection failures?
Yes, applications can be developed in Azure to manage connection failures. Strategies include implementing retry mechanisms, utilizing exponential back off strategies, and incorporating circuit breaker patterns. Azure provides libraries, SDKs, and services that support building robust applications with these features, ensuring resilience in the face of temporary network issues or service disruptions.
7. Define Azure storage key.
An Azure storage key is a security credential used for authentication and authorization to access resources in Azure Storage accounts. Each Azure Storage account has two keys (primary and secondary) that act as shared access keys. Applications and services use these keys to authenticate themselves when accessing data stored in Azure Storage, such as blobs, tables, queues, and files. It is essential to keep storage keys secure, and rotation of keys is recommended for enhanced security.
8. What is cspack in Azure?
cspack in Azure refers to the Cloud Service Package tool, a command-line utility used in the development and packaging of applications for deployment in Azure Cloud Services. Developers use cspack to create a package (.cspkg file) that contains the application code, configuration files, and other dependencies. This packaged file can then be deployed to Azure Cloud Services, simplifying the process of distributing and running cloud-based applications.
9. Which Azure solution is recommended for running code without a server?
The recommended Azure solution for running code without a server is Azure Functions. Azure Functions is a serverless compute service that allows developers to build and run event-triggered functions without the need to provision or manage servers. It supports various programming languages, and functions can be triggered by events like HTTP requests, changes in Azure Storage, or messages in Azure Service Bus, among others.
10. What would be the best feature recommended by Azure for having a common file-sharing system between multiple virtual machines?
For having a common file-sharing system between multiple virtual machines, the recommended feature in Azure is Azure File Storage. Azure File Storage provides a fully managed file share in the cloud that can be accessed by multiple virtual machines. It uses the standard SMB (Server Message Block) protocol, allowing applications running on different VMs to share files easily. It is suitable for scenarios where shared file storage is needed for applications, diagnostics, configuration, and other purposes.
11. How can one access a Linux Virtual Machine on Azure without relying on a password?
To access a Linux Virtual Machine on Azure without relying on a password, the recommended method is to use SSH key authentication. Instead of providing a password for authentication, users generate an SSH key pair (public and private keys). The public key is added to the authorized_keys file on the Linux VM, while the private key is kept securely on the user's local machine. SSH key authentication enhances security and eliminates the need for password-based access.
12. What distinctions exist between Azure Scale Sets and Availability Sets?
The main distinctions between Azure Scale Sets and Availability Sets are:
- Scaling: Azure Scale Sets allow for the automatic scaling of a group of identical VMs based on demand or predefined rules, while Availability Sets focus on ensuring high availability by distributing VM instances across update domains within a data center.
- Use Cases: Scale Sets are more suitable for dynamic workloads with varying demand, while Availability Sets are designed for applications that require constant availability and resilience to hardware failures.
13. What occurs when the Azure ID Authentication process reaches the maximum number of failed attempts?
When the maximum failed attempts are reached during Azure ID Authentication, the account may be temporarily locked or subjected to additional security measures, depending on the Azure AD (Active Directory) configuration. This security feature helps prevent unauthorized access due to multiple failed login attempts. The account may require manual intervention or follow predefined policies for unlocking, which can include time-based lockouts or multifactor authentication challenges.
14. Is it feasible to obtain a public DNS or IP address for the Azure Internal Load Balancer?
No, it is not feasible to obtain a public DNS or IP address for the Azure Internal Load Balancer (ILB). An Internal Load Balancer is designed to balance traffic only within the internal network of Azure, and it does not have public accessibility. It is used to distribute network traffic to resources like virtual machines or services that are part of the same Azure Virtual Network. External access to resources behind an ILB is typically managed through a separate resource, such as an Azure Application Gateway or an Azure External Load Balancer.
15. What is Azure Blob Storage?
Microsoft Azure offers a secure and scalable object storage service known as Azure Blob Storage. It is designed to store and manage large amounts of unstructured data, such as text or binary data, and is commonly used for storing files, images, videos, and other types of data. Azure Blob Storage is part of the Azure Storage services and offers features like high availability, durability, and accessibility through a RESTful API.
1. What do you understand by Azure Scheduler?
Azure Scheduler is a cloud service provided by Microsoft Azure that enables users to create, schedule, and manage jobs that invoke various actions, such as invoking HTTP/S endpoints, posting messages to Azure Storage queues, or sending emails. It allows the automation of recurring tasks and the execution of jobs at specified intervals.
2. Can the Windows machines hosted on an IIS Web Server, configured with distinct port numbers such as 80 and 81, be effectively mapped to an Azure Load Balancer?
Yes, Azure Load Balancer supports the distribution of incoming network traffic across multiple servers in a backend pool, even if those servers are configured with different port numbers. It can balance traffic based on network-level protocols, including Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP), facilitating the effective distribution of requests to the specified ports.
3. In a scenario where an application is hosted on an On-Prem Server with a backup in the Azure East US region, if access to the On-Prem server application fails, is it feasible to access the application through the Azure environment?
Yes, in such a scenario, Azure Traffic Manager can be employed to manage the distribution of incoming traffic across multiple endpoints, including the On-Premises server and the Azure backup. If the On-Prem server becomes unavailable, Traffic Manager can automatically redirect traffic to the Azure environment, ensuring continued access to the application.
4. Which Azure feature is suitable for mitigating high application load issues in the absence of manual support in the workflow?
Azure Autoscale is a suitable feature for automatically adjusting the number of compute resources allocated to an application based on predefined criteria, such as CPU usage or other performance metrics. It helps mitigate high application loads by dynamically scaling resources up or down without requiring manual intervention.
5. Besides blob storage, what other types of storage services does Azure offer?
Azure provides various storage services, including Azure Table Storage for NoSQL data, Azure Queue Storage for reliable messaging between application components, Azure File Storage for cloud-based file shares, and Azure Disk Storage for attaching persistent disks to virtual machines.
6. What are IaaS, PaaS, and SaaS?
- IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service): A cloud computing model that provides virtualized computing resources over the internet. Customers have the option to lease virtual machines, storage, and networking infrastructure with a flexible pay-as-you-use model.
- PaaS (Platform as a Service): A cloud computing service that provides a platform allowing customers to develop, run, and manage applications without dealing with the complexity of building and maintaining the underlying infrastructure.
- SaaS (Software as a Service): A cloud computing service that delivers software applications over the internet. Users can access and use software without the need for installation or maintenance.
7. Contrast the variances between Azure Table Storage and Azure SQL service.
- Azure Table Storage: NoSQL data store suitable for semi-structured data, offering high scalability and low cost. It provides fast and efficient key/value access but lacks the advanced querying capabilities of SQL databases.
- Azure SQL service: A relational database service based on SQL Server, supporting structured data with ACID properties. It provides robust querying capabilities, transactions, and relational data modelling.
8. Consider a scenario where an application front-end hosting is done on Azure but the customer needs the database hosting to be done on an on-premise server due to security concerns. What methods can be employed to manage connectivity in Azure for this specific situation?
For this scenario, Azure Hybrid Connections or Azure Virtual Network Service Endpoints can be utilized. Hybrid Connections allow secure and seamless connectivity between Azure and on-premise resources, while Virtual Network Service Endpoints enable private, secure access to Azure services from on-premise networks.
9. What distinctions exist between Azure Storage Queue and Azure Service Bus Queue?
- Azure Storage Queue: A simple message queuing service suitable for asynchronous communication between components. It is cost-effective and provides basic queuing capabilities without features like transactions or publish/subscribe.
- Azure Service Bus Queue: A more advanced messaging service offering features like transactions, sessions, and publish/subscribe patterns. It is suitable for complex messaging scenarios and supports both queuing and topics/subscriptions for more sophisticated communication patterns.